I read through my old Linux course notes, but that didn't help me much. The Wikipedia page on disk partitioning isn't too bad on refreshing you on how primary & secondary partitions work.
I found a site which makes it pretty clear, with screenshots of examples (though it's not an exact example because they've got a Windows install on there, and they're talking about dual-booting). In the end, I ended up choosing:
Primary, 5000 bytes (=500MB), for boot partition, mount point "/boot"The numbers you get picked will get fudged slightly because of sizes that disk blocks require, etc.
Logical, 5000 bytes (=500MB), for swap area, no mount point (none will happen)
Primary, 300000 bytes (=30GB), ext4, mount point "/" (this will host Linux)
Primary, 8000000-ish bytes (~800GB, remainder of the drive), ext4, mount point "/home" (to house our users' files)
To view a simple list of disks, usages, and mount points after it's all installed, use
in a terminal (command line).